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Die Galle (mittelhochdeutsch galle: Gallenblase und deren Inhalt; gr. χολή cholé; lat. bilis) ist eine zähe Körperflüssigkeit, die in der Leber produziert wird, bevor. Markgallen sind Gallformen, bei dem das Wachstum der Galle von den inneren Schichten der Pflanzen ausgeht. Man kann sie in geschlossene Gallen und freie. Testspiel: FC kaarsenmakerijkeerf.nl - SC Austria Lustenau. Unser 1. Testspiel der Saison /21 gegen Lustenau im Re-Live. Fr, In der Ostschweiz wartet die Erlebnisregion kaarsenmakerijkeerf.nl-Bodensee mit einem abwechslungsreichen Angebot für jeden Geschmack auf. Im Unternehmen Kantonsspital kaarsenmakerijkeerf.nl sind die Spitäler kaarsenmakerijkeerf.nl, Rorschach und Flawil zusammengeschlossen. Sie bieten ein breites Spektrum.
In der Ostschweiz wartet die Erlebnisregion kaarsenmakerijkeerf.nl-Bodensee mit einem abwechslungsreichen Angebot für jeden Geschmack auf. An der Speicherstrasse in der Stadt kaarsenmakerijkeerf.nl läuft derzeit ein Grosseinsatz der Polizei wegen eines Falles von schwerer häuslicher Gewalt. Der FC St. Gallen trifft in der 3. Qualifikationsrunde zur Europa League zuhause auf AEK Athen.
However, in the abbey became an ally of Zurich , Lucerne , Schwyz , and Glarus who were all members of the Confederation. Ulrich Varnbüler was an early mayor of St.
Gallen and perhaps one of the most colorful. Hans, the father of Ulrich, was prominent in city affairs in St. Gallen in the early 15th century.
Ulrich entered public affairs in the early s and attained the various offices and honours that are available to a talented and ambitious man.
He demonstrated fine qualities as field commander of the St. Gallen troops in the Burgundian Wars. In the Battle of Grandson his troops were part of the advance units of the Confederation and took part in their famous attack.
A large painting of Ulrich returning triumphantly to a hero's welcome in St. Gallen is still displayed in St. After the war, Varnbüler often represented St.
Gallen at the various parliaments of the Confederation. In December , Varnbüler was offered the position of mayor for the first time. From that time on, he served in several leadership positions and was considered the city's intellectual and political leader.
According to Vadian , who understood his contemporaries well, "Ulrich was a very intelligent, observant, and eloquent man who enjoyed the trust of the citizenry to a high degree.
His reputation among the Confederates was also substantial. However, in the late s, he became involved in a conflict that was to have serious negative consequences for him and for the city.
In , Ulrich Rösch had assumed the management of the abbey of Saint Gall. He was an ambitious prelate, whose goal was to return the abbey to prominence by every possible means, following the losses of the Appenzell War.
His restless ambition offended the political and material interests of his neighbours. When he arranged for the help of the Pope and the Emperor to carry out a plan to move the abbey to Rorschach on Lake Constance , he encountered stiff resistance from the St.
Gallen citizenry, other clerics, and the Appenzell nobility in the Rhine Valley, who were concerned for their holdings. At this point, Varnbüler entered the conflict against the prelate.
He wanted to restrain the increase of the abbey's power and at the same time increase the power of the town that had been restricted in its development.
For this purpose he established contact with farmers and Appenzell residents led by the fanatical Hermann Schwendiner who were seeking an opportunity to weaken the abbot.
Initially, he protested to the abbot and the representatives of the four sponsoring Confederate cantons Zurich, Lucerne, Schwyz, and Glarus against the construction of the new abbey in Rorschach.
Then on 28 July he had armed troops from St. Gallen and Appenzell destroy the buildings already under construction, an attack known as the Rorschacher Klosterbruch.
When the Abbot complained to the Confederates about the damage and demanded full compensation, Ulrich responded with a countersuit, and in cooperation with Schwendiner rejected the arbitration efforts of the non-partisan Confederates.
He motivated the clerics from Wil to Rorschach to abandon their loyalty to the abbey and spoke against the abbey at a meeting of the townspeople at Waldkirch, where the popular league was formed.
He was confident that the four sponsoring cantons would not intervene with force, due to the prevailing tensions between the Confederation and the Swabian League.
He was strengthened in his resolve when the people of St. Gallen re-elected him as their highest magistrate in Ulrich Varnbüler had made a serious miscalculation.
In early , the four cantons decided to carry out their duty to the abbey and to invade the St. Gallen canton with an armed force.
The people of Appenzell and the local clerics submitted to this force without significant resistance, while the city of St.
Gallen braced itself for a fight to the finish. However, when they learned that their compatriots had given up the fight, they lost confidence, and they agreed to a settlement that greatly restricted the city's power and burdened the city with serious penalties and reparation payments.
Ulrich, overwhelmed by the responsibility for his political decisions, panicked in the face of the approaching enemy who wanted him apprehended.
His life was in great danger, and he was forced to escape from the city disguised as a messenger. He made his way to Lindau and to Innsbruck and the court of King Maximilian.
The victors confiscated those of his properties that lay outside of the city of St. Gallen and banned him from the Confederation. Ulrich then appealed to the imperial court as did Schwendiner, who had fled with him for the return of his property.
The suit had the support of Friedrich II and Maximilian and the trial threatened to drag on for years: it was continued by Ulrich's sons Hans and Ulrich after his death in , and eventually the Varnbülers regained their properties.
However, other political ramifications resulted from the court action, because the Confederation gained ownership of the city of St.
Gallen and rejected the inroads of the empire. Thus, the conflict strengthened the relationship between the Confederation and the city of St.
On the other hand, the matter deepened the alienation between Switzerland and the German Holy Roman Empire , which eventually led to a total separation after the Swabian War.
Despite the unpropitious end of his career, Ulrich Varnbüler is immortalized in a famous woodcut by Albrecht Dürer , which is now part of the Smithsonian Institution's woodcut collection in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
He is the patriarch of the Baden and Württemberg Varnbülers. The town converted to the new religion while the abbey remained Roman Catholic. While iconoclastic riots forced the monks to flee the city and remove images from the city's churches, the fortified abbey remained untouched.
Under the Helvetic Republic both the abbey and the city lost their power and were combined with Appenzell into the Canton of Säntis.
The Helvetic Republic was widely unpopular in Switzerland and was overthrown in Following the Act of Mediation the city of St. Gallen became the capital of the Protestant Canton of St.
One of the first acts of the new canton was to suppress the abbey. Gall a separate diocese , with the abbey church as its cathedral and a portion of the monastic buildings designated the bishop's residence.
Gustav Adolf , former king of Sweden , spent the last years of his life in St. Gallen, and died there in In the 15th century, St.
Gallen became known for producing quality textiles. In , the zenith was reached with a yearly production of 38, pieces of cloth.
The first depression occurred in the middle of the 18th century, caused by strong foreign competition and reforms in methods of cotton production.
But St. Gallen recovered and an even more prosperous era arrived. At the beginning of the 19th century, the first embroidery machines were developed in St.
One fifth of the population of the eastern part of Switzerland was involved with the textile industry. Gallen embroidery. Only in the s did the textile industry recover somewhat.
Nowadays, because of competition and the prevalence of computer-operated embroidery machines, only a reduced textile industry has survived in St.
Gallen; but its embroidered textiles are still popular with Parisian haute couture designers. It is one of the highest cities in Switzerland and thus receives abundant winter snow.
It therefore offers excellent recreation areas nearby. As the city center is built on an unstable turf ground its founder Gallus was looking for a site for a hermitage, not for a city , all buildings on the valley floor must be built on piles.
For example, the entire foundation of the train station and its plaza are based on hundreds of piles. Gallen has an area, as of [update] , of Of this area, Of the rest of the land, Between and St.
The wettest month was July during which time St. During this month there was precipitation for an average of The month with the most days of precipitation were June and July May.
Gallen is notable for reporting the highest maximum radioactivity measurements of any Swiss city, as published in the yearly report by the Federal Office of Public Health.
The same report explains that the unusually high spikes of radioactivity measured in St. Gallen are due to radioactive products of radon gas being washed to the ground during heavy storms, but does not explain where the sufficient quantities of radon gas and its products to account for the anomaly would come from.
Gallen to lie in an area of the lowest level of radon exposure. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Argent a Bear rampant Sable langued and in his virility Gules and armed and gorged Or.
Gallen and operates as a collegiate authority. The president of the presidential directorate acts as mayor Stadtpräsident.
Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the City Parliament are carried by the City Council. The regular election of the City Council by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years.
Any resident of St. Gallen allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Council. The current mandate period is from 1 January to 31 December The mayor is elected as such by public election by means of a system of Majorz , while the heads of the other directorates are assigned by the collegiate.
The delegates are elected by means of a system of Majorz. As of [update] , St. The last regular election was held on 25 September and November The City Parliament Stadtparlament holds legislative power.
It is made up of 63 members, with elections held every four years. The City Parliament decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the City Council and the administration.
The delegates are selected by means of a system of proportional representation Proporz. The sessions of the City Parliament are public.
Unlike members of the City Council, members of the City Parliament are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance.
Gallen allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Parliament. The parliament holds its meetings in the Waaghaus once a week on Tuesdays.
The last regular election of the City Parliament was held on 25 September for the mandate period German : Legislatur from January to December In the federal election for the Swiss National Council the most popular party was the PS which received The next five most popular parties were the Green Party The next five most popular parties were the SVP In the federal election, a total of 20, voters were cast, and the voter turnout was Gallen has a population as of 31 December of 75, Of the foreign population, as of [update] , 5, are from Germany , 3, are from Serbia , 2, are from Italy , 1, are from Bosnia and Herzegovina , are from Austria , 6, are from other countries.
Most of the population as of [update] speaks German The age distribution, as of [update] , in St. Gallen is: 6, 9.
In [update] there were 16, people There were 4, or 6. The historical population is given in the following table: .
Gallen had an unemployment rate of 2. As of [update] , there were people employed in the primary economic sector and about 95 businesses involved in this sector.
Gallen and 31, people commuted into the municipality for work. Helvetia Insurance is a major company headquartered in St. According to the census [update] , 31, or Of the rest of the population, there are individuals or about 0.
There are individuals or about 0. There are individuals or about 1. Gallen is known for its business school, now named the University of St.
Gallen HSG. It was ranked as the top business school in Europe by Wirtschaftswoche , a weekly German business news magazine and is highly ranked by several other sources.
The University of St. Gallen is also famous for its high density of clubs. Gallen Symposium for over forty years. The St. Gallen Symposium is the leading student-run economic conference of its kind worldwide and aims to foster the dialogue between generations.
Gallen's state school system contains 64 kindergartens , 21 primary schools and 7 secondary schools and about 6, students.
The Institut provides an education in English, German and Italian and prepares the students to enter: American, British, Swiss, Italian, German and other European university programmes.
The canton's Gewerbliches Berufs- und Weiterbildungszentrum is the largest occupational school in Switzerland with over 10, students and various specialty institutes.
One for example, the GBS Schule für Gestaltung teaches students design fundamentals in the practice of graphic design. The school is located in Reitusli, a small section of the town of St.
In St. Gallen about Gallen, as of [update] , the highest education level completed by 15, people The remainder did not answer this question.
After the years of Gallus' death, the place became one of the centers of Germanic culture. This is because of the creative works of the monks who followed the footsteps of the city's founder Gallus.
In , St. Gallen was awarded the Wakker Prize for the city's effort to create a unified structure and appearance in current and future construction.
There are 28 sites in St. Gallen that are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance , including four religious buildings; the Abbey of St.
Gallen, the former Dominican Abbey of St. Katharina, the Reformed Church of St. Laurenzenkirche and the Roman Catholic parish church of St.
Maria Neudorf. There are six museums or archives in the inventory. Otto Seeck believes that over half the population of the empire perished.
Gilliam believes that the Antonine plague probably caused more deaths than any other epidemic during the empire before the mid-3rd century. Galen notes that the exanthema covered the victim's entire body and was usually black.
The exanthem became rough and scabby where there was no ulceration. He states that those who were going to survive developed a black exanthem.
According to Galen, it was black because of a remnant of blood putrefied in a fever blister that was pustular. His writings state that raised blisters were present in the Antonine plague, usually in the form of a blistery rash.
Galen states that the skin rash was close to the one Thucydides described. Galen describes symptoms of the alimentary tract via a patient's diarrhea and stools.
If the stool was very black, the patient died. He says that the amount of black stools varied. It depended on the severity of the intestinal lesions.
He observes that in cases where the stool was not black, the black exanthema appeared. Galen describes the symptoms of fever, vomiting, fetid breath, catarrh , cough, and ulceration of the larynx and trachea.
When the Peripatetic philosopher Eudemus became ill with quartan fever , Galen felt obliged to treat him "since he was my teacher and I happened to live nearby.
He was thoroughly attacked by the three attacks of quartan ague, and the doctors had given him up, as it was now mid-winter.
This practice conflicted with the then-current standard of care , which relied upon divination and mysticism.
Galen retaliated against his detractors by defending his own methods. Garcia-Ballester quotes Galen as saying: "In order to diagnose, one must observe and reason.
This was the basis of his criticism of the doctors who proceeded alogos and askeptos. Among other things he told me that, some ten years before, a young man had come to the city and had given, like me practical demonstrations of the resources of our art; this young man was put to death by poison, together with two servants who accompanied him.
Prognosis, then, is one of the essential problems and most important objectives of Galenic diagnosis. Galen was concerned with distinguishing prognosis from divination or prophecy, both to improve diagnosis technically and to enhance the physician's reputation.
The 11th-century Suda lexicon states that Galen died at the age of 70, which would place his death in about the year However, there is a reference in Galen's treatise "On Theriac to Piso" which may, however, be spurious to events of There are also statements in Arabic sources  that he died in Sicily at age 87, after 17 years studying medicine and 70 practicing it, which would mean he died about According to these sources, the tomb of Galenus in Palermo was still well preserved in the tenth century.
Nutton  believes that "On Theriac to Piso" is genuine, that the Arabic sources are correct, and that the Suda has erroneously interpreted the 70 years of Galen's career in the Arabic tradition as referring to his whole lifespan.
Boudon-Millot  more or less concurs and favours a date of Galen contributed a substantial amount to the Hippocratic understanding of pathology.
Under Hippocrates ' bodily humors theory, differences in human moods come as a consequence of imbalances in one of the four bodily fluids : blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm.
Galen promoted this theory and the typology of human temperaments. In Galen's view, an imbalance of each humor corresponded with a particular human temperament blood—sanguine, black bile—melancholic, yellow bile—choleric, and phlegm—phlegmatic.
Thus, individuals with sanguine temperaments are extroverted and social; choleric people have energy, passion, and charisma; melancholics are creative, kind, and considerate; and phlegmatic temperaments are characterized by dependability, kindness, and affection.
Galen's principal interest was in human anatomy, but Roman law had prohibited the dissection of human cadavers since about BC.
Galen clarified the anatomy of the trachea and was the first to demonstrate that the larynx generates the voice. In the middle of the 16th century, the anatomist Andreas Vesalius challenged the anatomical knowledge of Galen by conducting dissections on human cadavers.
These investigations allowed Vesalius to refute aspects of Galen's anatomy. Among Galen's major contributions to medicine was his work on the circulatory system.
He was the first to recognize that there are distinct differences between venous dark and arterial bright blood.
Although his anatomical experiments on animal models led him to a more complete understanding of the circulatory system, nervous system , respiratory system , and other structures, his work contained scientific errors.
He believed venous blood to be generated in the liver, from where it was distributed and consumed by all organs of the body. He posited that arterial blood originated in the heart, from where it was distributed and consumed by all organs of the body.
The blood was then regenerated in either the liver or the heart, completing the cycle. Galen also believed in the existence of a group of blood vessels he called the rete mirabile in the carotid sinus.
In his work De motu musculorum , Galen explained the difference between motor and sensory nerves , discussed the concept of muscle tone , and explained the difference between agonists and antagonists.
Galen was a skilled surgeon, operating on human patients. Many of his procedures and techniques would not be used again for centuries, such as the procedures he performed on brains and eyes.
Using a needle-shaped instrument, Galen attempted to remove the cataract-affected lens of the eye. At first reluctantly but then with increasing vigour, Galen promoted Hippocratic teaching, including venesection and bloodletting , then unknown in Rome.
This was sharply criticised by the Erasistrateans , who predicted dire outcomes, believing that it was not blood but pneuma that flowed in the veins.
Galen, however, staunchly defended venesection in his three books on the subject  and in his demonstrations and public disputations.
Although the main focus of his work was on medicine, anatomy, and physiology, Galen also wrote about logic and philosophy. His writings were influenced by earlier Greek and Roman thinkers, including Plato , Aristotle , the Stoics , and the Pyrrhonists.
Galen was concerned to combine philosophical thought with medical practice, as in his brief work That the Best Physician is also a Philosopher he took aspects from each group and combined them with his original thought.
He regarded medicine as an interdisciplinary field that was best practiced by utilizing theory, observation, and experimentation in conjunction.
Several schools of thought existed within the medical field during Galen's lifetime, the main two being the Empiricists and Rationalists also called Dogmatists or Philosophers , with the Methodists being a smaller group.
The Empiricists emphasized the importance of physical practice and experimentation, or "active learning" in the medical discipline.
In direct opposition to the Empiricists were the Rationalists, who valued the study of established teachings in order to create new theories in the name of medical advancements.
The Methodists formed somewhat of a middle ground, as they were not as experimental as the Empiricists, nor as theoretical as the Rationalists. The Methodists mainly utilized pure observation, showing greater interest in studying the natural course of ailments than making efforts to find remedies.
Galen's education had exposed him to the five major schools of thought Platonists, Peripatetics, Stoics, Epicureans, Pyrrhonists , with teachers from the Rationalist sect and from the Empiricist sect.
Galen was well known for his advancements in medicine and the circulatory system, but he was also concerned with philosophy.
He developed his own tripartite soul model following the examples of Plato; some scholars refer to him as a Platonist.
The Stoics, according to Galen, failed to give a credible answer for the localization of functions of the psyche, or the mind.
Through his use of medicine, he was convinced that he came up with a better answer, the brain. Galen, following Plato's idea, came up with two more parts to the soul.
Galen also rejected Stoic propositional logic and instead embraced a hypothetical syllogistic which was strongly influenced by the Peripatetics and based on elements of Aristotelian logic.
One of Galen's major works, On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato , sought to demonstrate the unity of the two subjects and their views.
Using their theories, combined with Aristotle's, Galen developed a tripartite soul consisting of similar aspects.
Each corresponded to a localized area of the body. The rational soul was in the brain, the spiritual soul was in the heart, and the appetitive soul was in the liver.
Galen was the first scientist and philosopher to assign specific parts of the soul to locations in the body because of his extensive background in medicine.
Galen believed each part of this tripartite soul controlled specific functions within the body and that the soul, as a whole, contributed to the health of the body, strengthening the "natural functioning capacity of the organ or organs in question".
These passions were considered to be even stronger than regular emotions, and, as a consequence, more dangerous. This third part of the soul is the animalistic, or more natural, side of the soul; it deals with the natural urges of the body and survival instincts.
Galen proposed that when the soul is moved by too much enjoyment, it reaches states of "incontinence" and "licentiousness", the inability to willfully cease enjoyment, which was a negative consequence of too much pleasure.
In order to unite his theories about the soul and how it operated within the body, he adapted the theory of the pneuma,  which he used to explain how the soul operated within its assigned organs, and how those organs, in turn, interacted together.
Galen then distinguished the vital pneuma, in the arterial system, from the psychic pneuma, in the brain and nervous system.
He conducted many anatomical studies on animals, most famously an ox, to study the transition from vital to psychic pneuma.
Galen believed there to be no distinction between the mental and the physical. According to Galen, the Stoics' lack of scientific justification discredited their claims of the separateness of mind and body, which is why he spoke so strongly against them.
Another one of Galen's major works, On the Diagnosis and Cure of the Soul's Passion, discussed how to approach and treat psychological problems.
His book contained directions on how to provide counsel to those with psychological issues to prompt them to reveal their deepest passions and secrets, and eventually cure them of their mental deficiency.
The leading individual, or therapist, had to be a male, preferably of an older, wiser, age, as well as free from the control of the passions.
Galen may have produced more work than any author in antiquity, rivaling the quantity of work issued from Augustine of Hippo.
In AD , a fire in the Temple of Peace destroyed many of his works, in particular treatises on philosophy. Because Galen's works were not translated into Latin in the ancient period, and because of the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West, the study of Galen, along with the Greek medical tradition as a whole, went into decline in Western Europe during the Early Middle Ages , when very few Latin scholars could read Greek.
However, in general, Galen and the ancient Greek medical tradition continued to be studied and followed in the Eastern Roman Empire , commonly known as the Byzantine Empire.
All of the extant Greek manuscripts of Galen were copied by Byzantine scholars. In the Abbasid period after AD Arab Muslims began to be interested in Greek scientific and medical texts for the first time, and had some of Galen's texts translated into Arabic, often by Syrian Christian scholars see below.
As a result, some texts of Galen exist only in Arabic translation,  while others exist only in medieval Latin translations of the Arabic.
In some cases scholars have even attempted to translate from the Latin or Arabic back into Greek where the original is lost.
Even in his own time, forgeries and unscrupulous editions of his work were a problem, prompting him to write On his Own Books. Forgeries in Latin, Arabic or Greek continued until the Renaissance.
Some of Galen's treatises have appeared under many different titles over the years. Sources are often in obscure and difficult-to-access journals or repositories.
Although written in Greek, by convention the works are referred to by Latin titles, and often by merely abbreviations of those. No single authoritative collection of his work exists, and controversy remains as to the authenticity of a number of works attributed to Galen.
As a consequence, research on Galen's work is fraught with hazard. Various attempts have been made to classify Galen's vast output.
For instance Coxe lists a Prolegomena, or introductory books, followed by 7 classes of treatise embracing Physiology 28 vols. Over 20, pages in length, it is divided into 22 volumes, with index pages.
In his time, Galen's reputation as both physician and philosopher was legendary,  the Emperor Marcus Aurelius describing him as "Primum sane medicorum esse, philosophorum autem solum" first among doctors and unique among philosophers Praen Other contemporary authors in the Greek world confirm this including Theodotus the Shoemaker , Athenaeus and Alexander of Aphrodisias.
The 7th-century poet George of Pisida went so far as to refer to Christ as a second and neglected Galen. Hippocrates and Galen form important landmarks of years of Greek medicine.
Brock describes them as representing the foundation and apex respectively. Thus Galen summarised and synthesised the work of his predecessors, and it is in Galen's words Galenism that Greek medicine was handed down to subsequent generations, such that Galenism became the means by which Greek medicine was known to the world.
Often, this was in the form of restating and reinterpreting, such as in Magnus of Nisibis ' 4th-century work on urine, which was in turn translated into Arabic.
The term Galenism has subsequently taken on both a positive and pejorative meaning as one that transformed medicine in late antiquity yet so dominated subsequent thinking as to stifle further progress.
After the collapse of the Western Empire the study of Galen and other Greek works almost disappeared in the Latin West. In contrast, in the predominantly Greek-speaking eastern half of the Roman empire Byzantium , many commentators of the subsequent centuries, such as Oribasius , physician to the emperor Julian who compiled a Synopsis in the 4th century, preserved and disseminated Galen's works, making Galenism more accessible.
Nutton refers to these authors as the "medical refrigerators of antiquity". From then on, Galen and the Greek medical tradition in general became assimilated into the medieval and early modern Islamic Middle East.
Galen's approach to medicine became and remains influential in the Islamic world. He translated c. A part of the Alexandrian compendium of Galen's work, this 10th-century manuscript comprises two parts that include details regarding various types of fevers Humyat and different inflammatory conditions of the body.
More important is that it includes details of more than single and compound formulations of both herbal and animal origin. The book provides an insight into understanding the traditions and methods of treatment in the Greek and Roman eras.
In addition, this book provides a direct source for the study of more than single and compound drugs used during the Greco-Roman period. For example, Ibn al-Nafis' discovery of the pulmonary circulation contradicted the Galenic theory on the heart.
The influence of Galen's writings, including humorism, remains strong in modern Unani medicine , now closely identified with Islamic culture, and widely practiced from India where it is officially recognized to Morocco.
From the 11th century onwards, Latin translations of Islamic medical texts began to appear in the West, alongside the Salerno school of thought, and were soon incorporated into the curriculum at the universities of Naples and Montpellier.
From that time, Galenism took on a new, unquestioned authority, Galen even being referred to as the "Medical Pope of the Middle Ages".
In addition to the more numerous translations of Arabic texts in this period, there were a few translations of Galenic works directly from the Greek, such as Burgundio of Pisa 's translation of De complexionibus.
Galen's works on anatomy and medicine became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum, alongside Ibn Sina's The Canon of Medicine , which elaborated on Galen's works.
Unlike pagan Rome, Christian Europe did not exercise a universal prohibition of the dissection and autopsy of the human body and such examinations were carried out regularly from at least the 13th century.
An example of this is Mondino de Liuzzi , who describes rudimentary blood circulation in his writings but still asserts that the left ventricle should contain air.
Some cited these changes as proof that human anatomy had changed since the time of Galen. The Renaissance, and the fall of the Byzantine Empire , were accompanied by an influx of Greek scholars and manuscripts to the West, allowing direct comparison between the Arabic commentaries and the original Greek texts of Galen.
This New Learning and the Humanist movement, particularly the work of Linacre , promoted literae humaniores including Galen in the Latin scientific canon, De Naturalibus Facultatibus appearing in London in Debates on medical science now had two traditions, the more conservative Arabian and the liberal Greek.
It depicts pagan sages at the foot of the Tree of Jesse , with Galen between the Sibyl and Aristotle. Galenism's final defeat came from a combination of the negativism of Paracelsus and the constructivism of the Italian Renaissance anatomists, such as Vesalius in the 16th century.
Vesalius' most famous work, De humani corporis fabrica , was greatly influenced by Galenic writing and form. Seeking to examine critically Galen's methods and outlook, Vesalius turned to human cadaver dissection as a means of verification.
Galen's writings were shown by Vesalius to describe details present in monkeys but not in humans, and he demonstrated Galen's limitations through books and hands-on demonstrations despite fierce opposition from orthodox pro-Galenists such as Jacobus Sylvius.
Since Galen states that he is using observations of monkeys human dissection was prohibited to give an account of what the body looks like, Vesalius could portray himself as using Galen's approach of description of direct observation to create a record of the exact details of the human body, since he worked in a time when human dissection was allowed.
Galen argued that monkey anatomy was close enough to humans for physicians to learn anatomy with monkey dissections and then make observations of similar structures in the wounds of their patients, rather than trying to learn anatomy only from wounds in human patients, as would be done by students trained in the Empiricist model.
One of the best known examples of Vesalius' overturning of Galenism was his demonstration that the interventricular septum of the heart was not permeable, as Galen had taught Nat Fac III xv.
However, this had been revealed two years before by Michael Servetus in his fateful " Christianismi restitutio " with only three copies of the book surviving, but these remaining hidden for decades; the rest were burned shortly after its publication because of persecution of Servetus by religious authorities.
Michael Servetus , using the name "Michel de Villeneuve" during his stay in France, was Vesalius ' fellow student and the best Galenist at the University of Paris, according to Johann Winter von Andernach ,  who taught both.
It was begun in Venice in — by the Guinta. There were fourteen editions of the book from that date until Just one edition was produced from Lyon between and The Lyon edition has commentaries on breathing and blood streaming that correct the work of earlier renowned authors such as Vesalius , Caius or Janus Cornarius.
Another convincing case where understanding of the body was extended beyond where Galen had left it came from these demonstrations of the nature of human circulation and the subsequent work of Andrea Cesalpino , Fabricio of Acquapendente and William Harvey.
Galenic scholarship remains an intense and vibrant field, following renewed interest in his work, dating from the German encyclopedia Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft.
Copies of his works translated by Robert M. In , the University of Basel discovered that a mysterious Greek papyrus with mirror writing on both sides, which was at the collection of Basilius Amerbach , a professor of jurisprudence at the University of Basel in the 16th century, is an unknown medical document of Galen or an unknown commentary on his work.